CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE GENERATION IN RURAL AREAS AND METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM FOR HANDLING IT
TOKARCHUK Dina – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of the Administrative Management and Alternative Energy Resources, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3, Soniachna Str., е-mail: email@example.com).
PRONKO Lyudmila – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Management and Law, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3, Soniachna Str., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The article is devoted to the study of the characteristic features of waste generation in the rural areas of Ukraine and the elaboration of the methodology for developing a program for their management. The interpretation of the «waste» category in domestic legal documents is considered. The classification of waste according to various characteristics is proposed. which is based on the analysis of legislative acts, research by scientists and own analysis, The need to classify them according to the place of generation into urban and rural waste is justified, as this will help to take into account the specifics of these territories in terms of waste generation and management when drawing up local waste management programs.
The wastes of rural areas are: 1) production waste, in particular from the agricultural industry; 2) domestic waste of households; 3) infrastructure waste of rural settlements. The peculiarities of the generation of production waste in rural areas are that their composition is dominated by waste from the agro-industrial complex (agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and the food industry). The directions of handling them by categories of materials, which include incineration, recycling and removal to specially designated places, is studied. The energy use of these wastes remains insignificant in Ukraine despite the great existing potential. The characteristic features of the generation and management of household waste in rural households are identified, including: the predominance of the organic fraction in the structure of generated waste, problems with the organization of centralized waste collection, the presence of spontaneous landfills, etc. Special attention is paid to waste problems in rural areas related to russia's military aggression: 1) excessive generation of household waste due to a large number of internally displaced wasps persons (hereinafter referred to as IDPs), which rural waste disposal systems cannot cope with; 2) limited capabilities of rural communities in the rapid disposal of waste from destruction caused by shelling.
The methodology of developing the waste management programs for rural areas, the creation of which by local communities is a component of the implementation of the National strategy for waste management in Ukraine, is presented. The methodology takes into account all the features of rural areas in the generation of waste and the difficulties in their effective management. A typical structure of the program is presented, which provides for the analysis of the generation and management of waste in terms of waste types generated in the largest quantities. The methodology proposes to highlight directions for improving waste management in two directions: non-energy (reuse, recycling, least desirable – landfill) and energy (transformation of waste into energy carriers), as well as measures for effective management of waste caused by war.
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