COMPOSITION AND ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ASSETS ACCORDING TO NATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS (PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTING STANDARDS) 136 “BIOLOGICAL ASSETS”
KYTAICHUK Tatiana - Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Accounting and Taxation, Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economic оf Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (Vinnytsia)
In particular, a number of concepts that underpin ISFRPS are not used in Ukraine. These include: the priority of the economic content of operations over their juridical form, the concept of future economic benefits and utility of potential. The differences in requirements to accounting and reporting preparation related a different classification of assets and liabilities, income and expenses, as well as the lack of requirements and practices for the application of some accounting methods adoptedin ISFRPS.
In Ukraine, the process of reforming the accounting and financial reporting system in the public sector is under way. Taking into account the requirements of the international accounting standards for the public sector are being introduced the national provisions (standards) of accounting in the public sector (hereinafter referred to as "NP" (S) "APS"), which have been developed on the basis of international standards.
The Ministry of Finance of Ukraine, by its latest order dated 15.11.17, number 943, approved "NP" (S) "APS" 136 "Biological Assets". The standard came into force on 01.01.18. There was no specialized national standardin the budget sector that would regulate the accounting in agricultural operations.
The article deals with the actual problems of implementation of the national provision (standard) of accounting in the public sector 136 "Biological Assets". The essence of the concept of "biological assets" in various scientific and literary sources was investigated.In accordance with paragraph 4 of section І "NP" (S) "APS" 136, a biological asset is an animal or plant that, in the process of biological transformation, is capable of producing agricultural products and / or additional biological assets, andalsoin another way contributes to the economic benefits.
For the purposes of accounting, biological assets, depending on the length of the production process and the period of receipt of agricultural products, are classified into two groups: long-term and current biological assets.
The accounting of long-term biological assets used in non-agricultural activities (eg watch dogs, ornamental plants, etc.) is regulated by "NP" (S) "APS" 121 "Fixed assets". Also, fruiting plants related with agricultural activities, the peculiarities of accounting which are determined by other "NP" (S) "APS", should be accounted as part of fixed assets. Such plants include such perennial plantations as vineyards, gardens, plantations of berry crops and hops. It should also be taken into account that if a fruit plant produces fruits and its use in agricultural activities is planned in future accounting periods, then it is accountedas part of fixe dassets.
The typical correspondence of subaccounts of accounting for the display of transactions with assets, capital and liabilities of budgetary funds and statet rust funds does not include correspondence related to biological assets. Consequently, budget institutions need to develop their own view on the reflection in the accounting of biological assets "NP" (S) "A 136 "Biological Assets" has introduced concerning the biological assets of agricultural and agricultural products, the model of valuation at fair value. Peculiarities of estimation of biological assets depending on their receipt were investigated; the main problems arising from the public sector entities during their assessment were highlighted, in particular, in aspects of determining the fair value of such assets, the main deficiencies of estimation at fair value are indicated.
In the IFRS system, the valuation at fair value is one of the priorities. In the world practice, there are three possible approaches to the valuation of fair value: market, income, and expense. In the Ukrainian practice, the market approach is predominantly used. In the domestic practice of the account the peculiarities of the assessment of biological assets was formed taking into account the ways of receipt of biological assets, their classification and the date of evaluation in accordance with certain economic transactions in the course of the movement of these objects of accounting. Nowadays, most of budgetary institutions do not apply the innovations and record in accounting the posting of finished products according to the old method, that is, according to the planned cost, which leads to deformation of information in the financial reporting.
Evaluate long-term, current and additional biological assets at initial recognition and at each reporting date. Agricultural products are valued only at initial recognition. The evaluation at fair value provides calculation the sales costs.
Current biological assets and additional biological assets whose fair value can not reliably be determined at balance sheet date, can be recognized and displayed at cost of production, in addition to current biological plant production assets which are recognized and displayed as work in progress.
Regarding the initial recognition of agricultural products (grain, milk, honey, litter, etc.), it should be reflected in the reporting period in which it was separated from the biological asset. After initial recognition, it is evaluated and reflected in accordance with "NP" (S) "APS"123 "Funds".
According to the results of the research, the relevant conclusions are made. Evaluation is a rather complicated process, due to the informational needs of different groups of users, a large number of methods for determining the fair value of accounting objects. Taking into account all the above-mentioned aspects, budget institutions should, by choosing methods for determining the fair value of biological assets, independently determine the method for determining the value of biological assets and approve it in the order about the accounting policy.
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071 Accounting and taxation
072 Finance, banking and insurance
076 Business, trade and exchange activities
241 Hotel, restaurant and catering
281 Public administration
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