CRYPTOCURRENCY AS AN OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING: PROBLEMS OF RECOGNITION
PRAVDIUK Nataliia − Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Accounting, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3, Soniachna Str., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
PRAVDIUK Maryna– Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Accounting and Taxation in Economic Sectors, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3 Soniachna Str., e-mail: email@example.com).
The economic essence of cryptocurrencies and digital technologies were substantiated in the article. Also the article defines their role and significance in global economic processes. It has been established that the reason for the rapid growth in the popularity of cryptocurrencies lies in their advantages over traditional money, in particular, in decentralization, speed and ease of transactions, a high level of security through the use of cryptographic technologies, etc. At the same time, it has been established that the use of cryptocurrencies poses threats associated with the risk of stability of the global financial and economic system, significant volatility in the value of cryptocurrencies, the uncertainty of their legal status, insufficient controllability of transactions, etc. It is substantiated that the widespread use of cryptocurrencies in business processes and their use as an investment object requires proper legal regulation of operations with digital assets. The current state of the regulatory framework for the circulation of cryptocurrency and approaches to its recognition as an object of accounting in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Accounting Standards (IAS) are analyzed. It has been established that the enterprises, when recognizing cryptocurrency as an object of accounting, assessing its value and subsequently displaying information in the system of accounting accounts and financial statements, are guided by various accounting standards that are currently available, and therefore there are threats of inconsistencies or distortions of information about the financial condition of the enterprise, its liquidity and solvency, net asset value, etc. To solve this problem, the expediency of developing the special accounting standards by the regulatory authorities that define the generally accepted methodological foundations for displaying information about cryptocurrencies in the accounting system of enterprises is substantiated. Taking into account the specific properties and characteristics of cryptocurrencies, it is recommended to introduce a separate category of assets for cryptocurrencies and disclose information about them in the company’s balance sheet before the item «Cash and its equivalents» in order to maintain the order of liquidity of asset allocation.
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071 Accounting and taxation
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241 Hotel, restaurant and catering
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