DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF AGRARIAN NATURE MANAGEMENT IN CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION
PRIAMUKHINA Natalia Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Неad of the Department of Economics, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (Vinnytsia, 3 Soniachna Str., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Modern ecological-economic system of agrarian nature falls under the influence of globalization, which is aggravated by the existing problems of economic activity, suffers from limited resources, and therefore an important condition for ensuring its stability and development is the innovative nature of the reproduction process and effective management of its development. Perspective approaches to the formation of organizational and economic mechanism of nature management at different levels of management of socio-economic development include the development of adaptive regional ecological and economic systems that allow to plan and develop agricultural production taking into account the permissible man-made load, new organizational and economic principles of management of mechanized processes on the basis of modern information technology. The basis of such a methodological approach should be to establish the principles of a process-oriented approach to the management of the ecological-economic system on the basis of modeling of the main and auxiliary processes in the virtual system of agrarian nature management.
The peculiarities of ecological and economic systems require the development of special research methods in substantiating the relevant mechanisms of management of agro-industrial sphere. The development of ecological and economic systems of agrarian nature management is determined by the processes occurring in them, the risks and threats to their safety, and the prospects for social and economic development. In order to avoid or at least to prevent threats to ecological and economic security generated by structural imbalances in the economic and social spheres under the conditions of globalization and, as a consequence, result in limited reproduction of natural resources, it is necessary to transfer agrarian natural resources to the principles of sustainable development.
Depending on the goals, tasks and problems under consideration, an arsenal of diagnostic methods is selected. The main thing in diagnostics ̶ is to identify the symptoms, factors that characterize the state of the controlled system. It is necessary to determine the vector of environmental priorities for the development of the ecological and economic system, which will allow the grouping of environmental protection measures depending on the damage caused.
The perspective direction of development of the agro-system of the regions is the development and implementation of an adaptive-landscape system of land use. The Geographic Information System (GIS) provides systematization, processing, display and dissemination of coordinated data.
An illustration of environmental activity can be a technique for the formation of a virtual ecological-economic system, which, in addition to the model of technology selection for the economic bloc, should include a description of the complex processes that take place. One of the promising directions of organizing the ecological and economic mechanism of managing the agrarian process should be the formation of a decision-making model based on knowledge, which is a structured, formal description of the accumulated experience of management of agrarian production and its environmental assessment.
The concept of such a model is based on a comparison of the current information model of the ecological environment and the agrarian process, its transformation, with a generalized description of permissible reference situations. Each reference situation reflects the possible permissible conditions that may arise in the process of agrarian nature use in the external environment. These conditions are compared with the current purpose of the enterprise. On the basis of expert interviews, appropriate management measures are taken to ensure the achievement of a comparable environmental and economic goal. The choice of managerial decisions in this case is based on the results of the coincidence or the differences between the comparable models of description of the state of agrarian processes in accordance with the goals set for the current time. A characteristic feature of the concept of the ecological and economic mechanism for managing the process in the agrarian sector is the presence in the control of the knowledge base and the subsystem of automated decision support.
When developing a process-oriented management scheme, it is necessary to apply the criteria for selecting program-targeted tools for reducing environmental damage by regional territories. Comprehensive assessment of the ecological and economic system of the region allows management to monitor the compliance of the adopted decisions with the strategic objectives of the region and to identify "pain points" in various areas of activity.
The consistent use of these approaches will help to improve the management of ecological and economic systems of agrarian nature management, but puts before researcher’s new pressing problems, which will be devoted to further research.
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