EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION OF WASTE USE OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN THE FORMATION OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY
KIRILENKO Ivan – Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Academician of NAAS of Ukraine, People's Deputy of Ukraine (01008, Kyiv,5 Hrushevskoho street, e-mail: email@example.com).
TOKARCHUK Dina – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of the Administrative Management and Alternative Energy Resources, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3 Soniachna str., е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The article substantiates that the effective use of organic waste for further processing today is a prerequisite for the development of agricultural enterprises, their competitive advantages and ensuring energy and environmental security. The basic principles of enterprise waste disposal are identified, which include: maximum use of on-farm resources, ensuring the economic efficiency of the technologies used, and compliance with veterinary and sanitary requirements. The most common methods for processing organic waste of agricultural enterprises, which include energy and non-energy areas, are investigated. The waste from the plant growing industry can be used for energy purposes in two directions: direct burning in order to obtain heat and electric energy, as well as for the production of solid biofuels. Livestock waste can be used to produce another type of biofuel – biogas. The non-energy direction of the use of organic waste from agricultural enterprises provides the production of secondary products (pulp, paper, cardboard), feed, bedding, compost. It is substantiated that the directions of use of crop waste, which is now preferred by agricultural enterprises, are mainly non-energy (like roughage, litter, as fertilizers) and ineffective (such feed is of little value for highly productive animals, enterprises do not comply with the technology of smelling residues, which minimizes positive effect). Various methods of processing waste products (secondary products) of the livestock industry are analyzed: composting, vermicomposting, composting using gumivit, infusion, and biogas production. A comparison of the economic efficiency of traditional and bioenergy manure utilization at a conditional enterprise is made. It is proved that modern methods of manure utilization with biogas production have advantages because they have an environmental effect, can provide energy autonomy due to the refusal to purchase fuel, electricity, it is possible to increase the efficiency of activities through the sale or own use of biological fertilizers, and the sale of other by-products.
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