EFFICIENCY OF GROWING ENERGY CROPS AND THEIR PROCESSING INTO BIOFUELS IN THE CONTEXT OF ENSURING ENERGY AUTONOMY OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES
KALETNIK Grygorii – Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Academician of NAAS of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Administrative Management and Alternative Energy Sources, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3 Soniachna str., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
TOKARCHUK Dina – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of the Administrative Management and Alternative Energy Resources, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3 Soniachna str., е-mail: email@example.com).
The article substantiates that the lack of a single interpretation of the concept of «energy crops» leads to difficulties in approaches to state incentives for the development of their production. It is determined that domestic scientists understand energy crops as a rule, as crops, grown for the use exclusively for energy purposes (willow, poplar, miscanthus, switchgrass, etc.). The classification of bioenergy crops by such features as: growing cycle, type, characteristics and the final product obtained, origin is considered.
It has been proved that growing of energy crops will have a positive effect for the economy (improving the state balance of payments, reducing energy costs, economic growth) and the environment (decarbonization, reducing emissions, land reclamation, etc.). The characteristics of energy crops in relation to growing conditions are given and a review of plant varieties for bioenergy use from the State Register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine in 2021 is made. The peculiarities of the technology of growing giant miscanthus, energy willow and poplar are considered; economic calculations of efficiency of cultivation of miscanthus on one hectare are resulted. The experience in growing energy crops by the Yaltushkivka Research and Breeding Station, where miscanthus and energy willow plantations were laid in 2017 and the crops are used for self-sufficiency in energy resources, is analyzed.
Options for growing and further use of energy crops as fuel, including the sale of energy crops and biofuels based on them, as well as use for energy autonomy (direct combustion or production of pellets / briquettes with their further use within the enterprise) is considered. The choice of the most economically viable option depends on the specific conditions of the agricultural enterprises.
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