REVENUE MANAGEMENT IN HOTEL BUSINESS
LEVYTSKA Inna - Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Department of Agrarian Consulting and Tourism National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv)
The article defines the most effective methods of managing hotel revenues and methods of their use, which in turn will create competitive advantages and make the sale of hotel services stable, and the activity of hotel enterprises more profitable. The concept of Revenue management in the hotel business is disclosed, which is a technology that determines the best price for hotel room on the basis of demand forecasting, that is, the sale of the necessary number to the client at the right moment at the right price.
The basic pricing objectives of the hotel company have been developed, which should not be considered separately, but should be in line with the marketing strategy of the enterprise development.
Interdependence of the level of loading of hotel rooms from the reduction of prices is determined. The obtained data testify that the price reduction even by 1% requires an increase in loading of hotel rooms by almost 1% to cover losses as a result of income reduction. The goal of the pricing strategy, aimed at achieving the goals as the services to be offered, are proposed, hotels are trying to outdo competitors by maximizing the quality of services.
The principles, which should be used by hotel companies that master flexible pricing methods from the point of view of marketing complex: the choice of pricing policy should be closely related to the positioning of the hotel company services; A correlation of the pricing strategy with the definition of the stage of the life cycle, on which the hotel product is located, is very important for the process of formation of prices.
The mechanism of calculation of sales prices for hotel services is offered. These approaches should be considered in the pricing policies of the hotel company, depending on the services they provide. The stages of the analysis are determined: market research, hotel product life cycle, task setting of pricing depending on the goals of the hotel company, determination of the marginal range of price fluctuations, determination of the most optimal range of prices. Analysis of prices and range of competitors' services, choice of method of pricing, adjustment of the basic price level, establishment of the final price.
The method of "discriminatory pricing" is described and examples of the use of this method are given. The concept of "Price discrimination" is defined, which is a useful tool for smoothing the supply and demand, providing additional income and profit to most hospitality establishments. This method of pricing uses reductions / increases in prices to attract additional customers and revenue without lowering / raising prices for all.
A detailed description of the multiplier effect method used in the calculation of prices. The essence of the multiplier method is to calculate the multiplier, which shows how many times the dependent factor (profit) increases or decreases if the independent factor is changed to one.
The calculation of the budget based on the multiplicative method in the hotel "Ramada Lviv" was carried out. The number of indicators given in the calculations may increase depending on the specifics of the enterprise. Constant costs are the sum of personnel costs, operating costs, management, depreciation, etc., each of which is considered as an independent factor of impact on profits. Variable costs depend on the volume of goods turnover; therefore, they should include such expenses as additional wages, production raw materials, related and consumable materials.
It is characterized by a revenue management system in a hotel that requires a reliable database. A good revenue management system will benefit the hotel and customer. Cost-effectiveness factors (fixed costs of fixed assets and operating costs, variable costs of services) have a completely different range of actions than market-oriented factors (price, cost of services, loading of numbers, etc.).
It is determined that for hotels, comparing the influence of various factors on profit, it can be argued that the impact of trade turnover is more significant than the impact of costs.
An estimation of the importance of the factors that create the multiplicative effect, which was ranked, depending on their impact on profit.
It was found that prices, which are in close connection with all elements of the marketing complex, determine the profitability of the hotel company, its life cycle and financial stability. At the same time, the choice of pricing methods and pricing policies largely depends on the goals and strategies of the hotel company in the selected segment of the market.
The proposed mechanism for calculating the sale price of a hotel company is based on a multiplicative method, which includes: the definition of key indicators that affect the profit, including prices; calculation of profit when changing these indicators; estimation of the importance of the impact on the profit of each selected indicator; the choice of the most appropriate variant of profit.
The development of market relations in Ukraine and in advanced economies is somewhat similar, therefore, the generalization and dissemination of the best foreign and domestic income management experience based on marketing will improve the efficiency of the hotel industry.
Prospects for further research are the development of new strategies aimed at gaining market share, improving hotel services, increasing consumer demand through the interaction of factors of price and quality, promotion of the brand, introduction of new forms of management, including franchising and management contracts, electronic sales of hotels services.
- Ambrosii, O.I. (2010). Upravlinnia dokhodamy pidpryiemstv hotelnoho hospodarstva: tsilisnyi pidkhid [Management of the revenues of the enterprises of the hotel industry: a holistic approach]. Ekonomichni nauky. Seriia: Oblik i finansy, 7(1), 31-36 [in Ukrainian].
- Biletska, I.M. (2014). Ekonomichni osnovy diialnosti pidpryiemstv hotelnoho hospodarstva [Economic fundamentals of the enterprises of the hotel industry]. Torhivlia, komertsiia, pidpryiemnytstvo, 17, 65-70 [in Ukrainian].
- Boiko, M.H., Kulyk, M.V. (2014). Innovatsiina systema upravlinnia dokhodamy hoteliu [Innovative hotel income management system]. BKK U9 (4Ukr) 421.0-55 P 78, 38 [in Ukrainian].
- Vysochan, O.S., Vysochan, O.O. (2013). Teoretyko-metodolohichni zasady pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti operatorskoi funktsii tsinoutvorennia na turystychnomu rynku [Theoretical and methodological principles of increasing the efficiency of the operator's function of pricing in the tourist market]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Cherkaskoho derzhavnoho tekhnolohichnoho universytetu. Ser.: Ekonomichni nauky, 34 (1), 172-177 [in Ukrainian].
- Dorozhkina, H.M. (2014). Tsinova stratehiia turystychnoho pidpryiemstva [Price strategy of the tourist enterprise]. Visnyk Kremenchutskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Mykhaila Ostrohradskoho. Ser.: Ekonomichni nauky, 1, 141-148 [in Ukrainian].
- Levytskaia, Y.V., Zavalniuk, V.V. (2015). Эtapы stratehycheskoho ynnovatsyonnoho razvytyia predpryiatyia [Stages of strategic innovation development of an enterprise]. Scientific Lettersof Academic of Michal Baludansky,1 (3), 108-114 [in Ukrainian].
- Oliiarnyk, T.Iu. (2015). Oblikovo-analitychne zabezpechenia upravlinnia finansovo-ekonomichnoiu bezpekoiu hoteliv [Accounting and analytical support for the management of financial and economic security of hotels]. Problemy teorii ta metodolohii bukhhalterskoho obliku, kontroliu i analizu, 3 (33), 210-224 [in Ukrainian].
- Ostapenko, Ya.O. (2014). Analiz dokhodiv i vytrat pidpryiemstv hotelnoho hospodarstva yak instrumentarii dlia realizatsii kontrolnykh funktsii systemy upravlinnia [Analysis of incomes and expenses of enterprises of the hotel industry as a tool for the implementation of control functions of the management system]. [in Ukrainian].
- Pysarevskyi, I.M, Seheda, I.V. (2015). Doslidzhennia dokhodnosti pidpryiemstv hotelnoho hospodarstva [Investigation of the profitability of hotel enterprises]. Tekhnolohycheskyi audyt y rezervы proyzvodstva, 4 (5), 42-48 [in Ukrainian].
- Sahalakova, N.O. (2015). Udoskonalennia tsinoutvorennia yak osnova pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti [Improving pricing as a basis for improving efficiency]. Visnyk Odeskoho natsionalnoho universytetu. Seriia: Ekonomika, 2(2), 69-72 [in Ukrainian].
071 Accounting and taxation
072 Finance, banking and insurance
076 Business, trade and exchange activities
241 Hotel, restaurant and catering
281 Public administration
The journal “Economy, finances, management: Topical issues of science and practice” is included in the "List of Scientific Professional Editions of Ukraine".
The scientific edition is assigned the Category "Б" in the field of economics in specialties 051, 071, 072, 073, 075, 076, 241, 281
The journal “Economy, finances, management: Topical issues of science and practice” has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
The journal “Economy, finances, management: Topical issues of science and practice” is indexed in such database as Index Copernicus Value (https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/form)
The editorial board of the journal is guided by the principles of scientific, objectivity, professionalism, informational support of the most significant innovative researches, observance of standards of publishing ethics.
The purpose of the journal "Economics, finances, management: Topical issues of science and practical activity» is the coverage of leading scientific ideas in the economic, financial and management activities of the sectors of the national economy and the involvement of representatives of the domestic and foreign scientific professional community.
Objectives of the journal:
- publication of research findings on innovation in the economy, financial and management spheres, innovation of production processes;
- expanding partnerships with international scientific publishing organizations;
- enhancing the culture of reviewing and annotating published material;
- adherence to editorial ethics.
Article publishing is a paid service. Cost for printing in professional publications in accordance with the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of August 27, 2010 No. 796 "On approval of the list of paid services that can be provided by state educational institutions, other institutions of the educational system belonging to state and communal ownership" and the order Rector of the Higher Education University Mazura VA dated March 14, 2018 No. 93 “On setting the cost of printing in professional editions of the University”.
The cost of printing one page in professional editions of the university is 60 UAH.
An additional copy of the magazine with the mailing list costs 250 UAH.
Recipient: Vinnytsia National Agrarian University MFO 820172 Current account No. 31256282102055 Code 00497236 Bank State Treasury Service of Ukraine, Kyiv. VAT payer code 004972302286. Registration number 100271744. Purpose of payment: for printing an article in the journal: ”Economy, finances, management: Topical issues of science and practical activity "
It was founded in 1997 under the name "Bulletin of the Vinnytsia State Agricultural Institute". In 2010-2014 he was published under the title “Collection of scientific works of Vinnitsa National Agrarian University”.
From 2015 ”Economy, finances, management: Topical issues of science and practical activity” (Certificate of State Registration of Mass Media No. 21154-10954 of PR as of December 31, 2014)
The journal is the successor to the edition ”Collection of Scientific Papers of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. Series: Economic Sciences. "