SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL TOURISM AND LABOR MIGRATION
GOLOVNYA Elena, doctor of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of International Management, hotel and restaurant business and tourism, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna str, 3, е-mail: email@example.com).
The article considers modern forms of the international movement of human resources: international tourism and labor migration. The research methods used in the process of writing the article involved the application of general scientific and empirical techniques of economics, based on a systematic approach.
It is determined that international tourism is a form of international movement of human resources, has a mass character and is one of the leading highly profitable and most dynamic sectors of the world economy. The main tourist tendencies in the international tourist market by traditional geographical macroregions are investigated. The most attractive tourist destinations to visit according to the results of the popular international tourist portal Lonely Planet are analyzed. Ukraine is an active participant in the international tourism industry. In 2018, the largest number of citizens from Ukraine left for Poland and amounted to almost 10 million people.
The author draws attention to one of the socio-economic problems for national security: large-scale labor and educational migration of Ukrainians to foreign countries, which sometimes becomes permanent (ie leads to a change of country of residence). The acquisition of the right to free movement by Ukrainian citizens coincided with profound structural socio-economic and political transformations, accompanied by rising unemployment.
It is studied that the introduction of visa-free regime between Ukraine and the EU and increasing the dynamics of labor migration processes form a tendency to reduce labor supply in the market in Ukraine, deteriorating professional qualifications of the economically active population at the most productive age.
It was found that the transformation of market relations non-market forms of management destroys the old forms of management, freeing a large labor force, which is not used in low-capacity industrial centers of Ukraine and forced to look for work in the international labor market. Meeting the specific needs of migrants has a multiplier effect on the economy by spending money on telephone conversations with family, visiting the homeland, sending remittances.
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071 Accounting and taxation
072 Finance, banking and insurance
076 Business, trade and exchange activities
241 Hotel, restaurant and catering
281 Public administration
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