THE ORETICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF APPLICATION OF FINANCIAL GUARANTEES FOR TRANSIT FOREIGN ECONOMIC OPERATIONS
KHOMUTENKO Vira – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Professor, Independent Judicial Expert (65020, Odesa, 23/2, Tyraspolska Str., e-mail: email@example.com).
KHOMUTENKO Alla – Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor of the Department of Finance, Odessa National Economic University, (65082, Odesa, 8, Preobrazhenska Str., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The article substantiates the need to use methods to ensure payment of customs duties, including financial guarantees. It is proved that financial guarantees are a method of ensuring the fulfillment of customs obligations in violation of the conditions for granting tax exemptions, including in the customs regime of «transit». The volumes of transit through the customs territory of Ukraine from the EU countries for 2014-2020 are analyzed. The essence and signs of transit foreign economic operations are determined. Cases are described in which transit will be considered as interrupted transit (hidden import). Statistical data are presented, which show that a significant share of transit operations are recognized by the customs authorities of Ukraine as interrupted transit. The volumes of provided financial guarantees are investigated. The tasks performed by ensuring the payment of customs duties through the use of financial guarantees under the customs regime of transit have been established. The types and forms of financial guarantees are determined depending on the method of movement of goods and commercial vehicles in the customs regime «transit» (transit, internal transit, joint transit, cabotage transit). The monetary pledge is described, as well as the guarantee document in written or electronic form. The peculiarities of the use of cash collateral are outlined. The order of registration of the documents provided at application of financial guarantees on transit foreign economic operations is opened. The conditions for providing financial guarantees by type (individual, multiple, general) are clarified. The cases in which the Customer is sent a request for payment of customs duties are described. There are formulas for calculating customs debt and penalties in case of non-payment of customs duties by the guarantor. The latest changes in the legal field that have a positive impact on the institution of financial guarantees are identified. The priority directions of improvement of the institute of financial guarantees are offered.
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071 Accounting and taxation
072 Finance, banking and insurance
076 Business, trade and exchange activities
241 Hotel, restaurant and catering
281 Public administration
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